The maturing of the relationship between the science of learning and cognition and pedagogical practice (2023)

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  • Recommended Articles (6)

Learning and Instruction

Volume 1, Number 2,


, pages 129-144

Author links open overlay panel

(Video) John Almarode and Nancy Frey: A Look at How Learning Works


Advances in our understanding of cognition have enabled the goal of advancing students' ability to become architects of their own knowledge and have made the study of instructional learning an integral aspect of psychological and educational research. Work on the application of psychological science to education now focuses on the details of teaching activities and programs that aim to promote students' knowledge-building skills. After an outline of US research on cognition that has established a framework for educational practice, attention is given to trends in the design of educational innovation. The research considered includes analysis of textbook structure and problem exercises, teacher explanations, and structured classroom interactions.


  • MES.Chiand othersCategorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices

    cognitive science


  • MES.Chiand othersSelf-Explanations: How Students Study and Use Examples to Learn Problem Solving

    cognitive science


  • ILLINOIS.streamand others

    Towards Meaningful Stories in History Texts for Young Students

    educational researcher


  • C.preparerand others

    Intentional learning as the goal of instruction

  • J.D.Bransfordand others

    Teaching, thinking and solving problems: fundamentals of research

    american psychologist


  • DELAWARE.wide

    In defense of empirical psychology


  • ALABAMA.Brown

    Knowing when, where and how to remember: a metacognition problem

  • ALABAMA.Brownand others

    Learn, remember and understand

  • ALABAMA.Brownand others

    Mutual teaching of activities to promote understanding and accompaniment

    cognitive instruction


  • ALABAMA.Brownand others

    Guided, cooperative learning and individual knowledge acquisition.

  • jsBrownand others

    Situated cognition and learning culture

    (Video) Science of Thought | Caroline Leaf | TEDxOaksChristianSchool

    educational researcher


  • MES.Chiand others

    Learn from examples through self-explanation

  • MES.Chiand others

    Problem solving experience

  • J H.Flavel

    Metacognitive aspects of problem solving

  • rGlaser

    Implications of training research for education

  • rGlaser

    B. F. Skinner's contributions to education and some counterinfluences

  • rGlaser

    The resurgence of learning theory in educational research

    american psychologist


  • rGlaserand others

    Learning theory and the study of instruction.

  • WKintsch

    learning from the text

  • Cited by (137)

    • Using game data to examine patterns of learning behavior in a serious game

      2017, Computers in Human Behavior

      Quote excerpt:

      Over the past decade, Alien Rescue has been used as part of the science curriculum by more than a dozen high schools in central Texas, as well as schools in at least twenty-nine states and four countries. Alien Rescue integrates several attributes of serious open-ended games along with a problem-based learning pedagogy in which students with different backgrounds (eg, experts and novices) use multiple approaches to problem solving (Glaser, 1991). Authenticity is achieved by putting students in the role of young scientists who are asked to participate in a United Nations rescue operation to save a group of six deranged aliens displaced from a distant galaxy because their home planets have been destroyed.

      Research has shown how open and serious games can facilitate the development of specific student skills and improve learning performance through problem solving. However, understanding how students learn these complex skills in a playful environment is challenging, as much of the research uses typical paper-and-pencil assessments and self-reported surveys or other traditional observational and quantitative methods. The purpose of this study is to identify students' learning behavior patterns for problem solving and to explore the behavior patterns of different performance groups within a serious open game calledalien rescue🇧🇷 To achieve this goal, this study intends to use game data incorporating sequential pattern mining and statistical analysis. The findings of this study confirmed the results of previous research (usingof the situationdata such as interviews) while at the same time providing an analytical approach to understanding in depth students' sequential behavior patterns usingno placegame data This study examined common sequential patterns among low-performing and high-performing students and showed that problem-solving strategies were different between these two performance groups. By using this integrated analytical method, we can gain a better understanding of the learning path of student performance and problem-solving strategies of students with different learning characteristics in a serious game context.

    • (Video) Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development in Social Relationships
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      Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE) has great potential to provide a quantitative measure of inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis. There is no current reference to establish signal stability in joints of healthy subjects when DCE-MRI is scanned longitudinally, which is crucial to differentiate treatment-induced changes from the inherent variability of perfusion measurements. The aim of this study was to test a pixel-by-pixel parametric map-based approach to DCE-MRI analysis (Dynamika) and to investigate the variability in signal characteristics over time in healthy controls using longitudinally acquired images.

      Dominant wrists of 10 healthy enrolled volunteers were imaged with contrast-enhanced 3T MRI at baseline, weeks 12, 24, and 52 and scored with RAMRIS. DCE-MRI was analyzed using a new approach based on parametric quantification maps. Radiographs were obtained at baseline and week 52 and scored using the modified Sharp van der Heidje method. RAMRIS scores and dynamic MRI measurements were correlated.

      No erosions were seen on radiographs, whereas MRI showed erosion-like changes, low-grade bone marrow edema, and low-to-moderate synovial enhancement. DCE-MRI parameters were stable (baseline scores, variability) (mean ± standard deviation); in the analysis of the whole fist, MEto mean(1.3±0.07, −0.08±0.1 at week 24) and IREto mean(0,008±0,004, −0,002±0,005 weeks 12 to 24). NobruteROI doll, Ito mean(1.2±0.07, 0.04±0.02 at week 52) and IREto mean(0.001±0.0008, 0.0006±0.0009 at week 52) andneedROI doll, Ito mean(1.2±0.09, 0.04±0.04 at week 52) and IREto mean(0.001±0.0008, 0.0008±0.001 at weeks 24 and 52). Dynamic parameters obtained by fully automated analysis demonstrated strong and statistically significant correlations with RAMRIS synovitis scores.

      The study demonstrated that contrast enhancement occurs in healthy volunteers, but the inherent variability of perfusion measurements obtained with the quantitative DCE-MRI method is low and stable, suggesting its suitability for longitudinal studies of inflammatory arthritis. These results also provide important information about potential cut-off levels for imaging reference targets in RA patients using parametric parameters extracted from RAMRIS and DCE-MRI.

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      Data from health care claims from May 2011 to December 2012 from the Humana database were analyzed. New adult patients on rivaroxaban or warfarin treatment with ≥ 2 diagnoses of AF (ICD-9-CM code 427.31) and without valvular AF were identified. Based on propensity scoring methods, warfarin recipients were matched 1:1 with rivaroxaban recipients. The end of the observation period was defined as end of data availability, end of insurance coverage, death, date of change to another anticoagulant agent, or day 14 of non-continuation of treatment. The total number of hospitalization days and other health resource utilization parameters (number of admissions, emergency department [ED] visits, and outpatient visits) were assessed using the method by Lin et al.

      Matches were found for all rivaroxaban recipients and the characteristics of the matched groups (n = 2253 per group) were well balanced. The mean age of both cohorts was 74 years; 46% were women. The estimated mean total number of hospital days was significantly lower in rivaroxaban users compared to warfarin users (all causes, 2.71 vs 3.87 days).P=0.032]; Related to PA, 2.11 vs. 3.02 days [P= 0.014]). The number of outpatient visits was also significantly lower (all causes, 25.26 vs. 35.79 visits [P<0.001]; Related to FA, 5.48 vs 9.06 visits [P<0.001]). Rivaroxaban users had an estimated lower mean number of all-cause hospitalizations compared to warfarin users (0.55 vs 0.73;P= 0.084) and a significantly lower estimated mean number of AF-related hospitalizations (0.40 vs 0.57;P= 0.022). The difference in the estimated mean number of emergency department visits for all causes was not statistically significant between users of rivaroxaban and warfarin.

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      In Finnish basic education, most teachers provide technology-enhanced feedback on learning and behavior on a daily basis by clicking on predefined options on an online platform. In this study, we explored 211,003 feedback actions given by 704 teachers to 7,811 students and their parents using latent profile analysis. Information about individual support needs was used to assess whether all students are equally encouraged by technology-enhanced feedback. We identified six subgroups for girls and five for boys. Very encouraging feedback was mainly given to students who were rarely absent and who rarely had special educational needs. Negative feedback about problem behavior was mainly given to children and most students were only weakly encouraged. On average, students received feedback from three different profiles in the same teaching group. We conclude that technology-enhanced feedback in its current form is not equally encouraging for everyone.

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      In this article, we argue that teachers' and students' joint awareness of dialogic intentions (IDs) in lessons can focus and guide students' spoken dialogic interactions in the context of digital technology use. We focus on ID as a factor that promotes the metacognitive awareness of productive dialogue among students, considering how teachers in 'dialogue rooms' express ID and how the use of a microblogging tool (Talkwall) can support, enhance or interrupt the realization of these intentions for students. 🇧🇷 The data consist of 17 classes with 7th grade students (ages 11 to 12), taught by six teachers and covering three subject areas: English, science and geography. A systematic model is used for the analysis of students' interactions with a focus on technology, which reveals how the possibilities and limitations of technology are implicated in the realization of ID. This document is important for examining how the ability to dialogue can be addressed through learning intentions, or a set of intentions, in lessons. Furthermore, it considers how specific technological possibilities are central to the ways in which technology is implicated in creating a relational space for internal action that can support teaching and learning.

    See full text

    Copyright © 1991 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    (Video) Emerging research proposal: call for interest


    What is the relationship between learning theory and teaching practice? ›

    Teachers make use of learning theories (consciously or not) and their related pedagogic approaches and technologies to design, develop and deliver effective teaching and learning experiences.

    Why is cognitive development important to teaching and learning? ›

    Why is Cognitive Development important? Cognitive development provides children with the means of paying attention to thinking about the world around them. Everyday experiences can impact a child's cognitive development.

    How are learning and cognition related? ›

    The cognitive process involves obtaining information, processing it, and storing it in the memory to be accessed again. Cognition is similar to learning because it is acquiring knowledge through direct experiences. The steps involved in cognitive processing include attention, language, memory, perception, and thought.

    How do research based instructional strategies enrich the pedagogical content knowledge of teachers? ›

    Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Setting objectives and providing feedback provides direction for learning, acknowledges student interest and investment, and encourages students to complete assignments.

    How is cognitive theory applied in teaching and learning? ›

    Examples of cognitive learning strategies include:

    Encouraging discussions about what is being taught. Helping students explore and understand how ideas are connected. Asking students to justify and explain their thinking. Using visualizations to improve students' understanding and recall.

    What are the relationship between learning and practicing skills? ›

    You have to practice - to do - skills in order to learn them. This is because, generally knowledge is something you learn mentally and abstractly, while skills involve some amount of physical coordination, or experiential learning to take place.

    How teachers can support the cognitive development of their students? ›

    Supporting Cognitive Development

    Encouraging problem-solving in the classroom. Making planful choices when arranging the classroom environment. The value and importance of play. Using active music and play experiences to support infant and toddler thinking.

    What is the role of cognition in learning explain it? ›

    Cognitive learning is an active style of learning that focuses on helping you learn how to maximize your brain's potential. It makes it easier for you to connect new information with existing ideas hence deepening your memory and retention capacity.

    How cognitive factors affect learning process? ›

    Cognitive factors that influence learning range from basic learning processes, such as memorizing facts or information, to higher-level processes, such as understanding, application, analysis and evaluation.

    What cognitive learning means? ›

    Cognitive learning is a change in knowledge attributable to experience (Mayer 2011). This definition has three components: (1) learning involves a change, (2) the change is in the learner's knowledge, and (3) the cause of the change is the learner's experience.

    How do you implement the pedagogy and teaching strategies in your classroom? ›

    How to Implement Critical Pedagogy into your Classroom
    1. Challenge yourself. If you are not thinking critically and challenging social structures, you cannot expect your students to do it! ...
    2. Change the classroom dynamic. ...
    3. Present alternative views. ...
    4. Change your assessments. ...
    5. Encourage activism.
    6 Sept 2019

    Why is it important for teachers to have pedagogical content knowledge? ›

    Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge Can Help Educators Succeed. Research about the ways in which students learn, Park said, indicates students consistently construct their own understanding based on prior knowledge and experiences as well as through interactions with their peers and teachers.

    How do you use research based knowledge and principles of teaching and learning to enhance professional practice? ›

    To apply this principle, consider the following teaching techniques:
    1. Check students' understanding of the task.
    2. Have students do guided self-assessments.
    3. Require students to reflect on and annotate their own work.
    4. Prompt students to analyze the effectiveness of their study skills.
    5. Have students engage in peer feedback.
    22 Nov 2022

    Which teaching methods are best for learning cognitive skills? ›

    5 Core Training Techniques to Improve Cognitive Skills:
    1. Strong Foundation. A healthy brain naturally seeks to operate as efficiently as possible. ...
    2. Repetition. With repetition, a cognitive skill can eventually become a stored routine. ...
    3. New Activities. ...
    4. Progressive Drills. ...
    5. Feedback.

    How do you promote cognitive development in the classroom? ›

    Some examples of what teachers can do in their classrooms to support children with special learning needs include using a picture schedule, adapting seating arrangements, or sharing vocabulary words with children before reading them a story.

    What is the relationship between maturity and learning? ›

    The main difference between learning and maturation is that learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and behaviours, whereas maturation is the process of becoming mature or developed. Thus, maturation is a mental and physical growth, whereas learning is mainly a mental process.

    Why is it important to learn and practice effective study skills? ›

    Good study skills can increase your confidence, competence, and self-esteem. They can also reduce anxiety about tests and deadlines. By developing effective study skills, you may be able to cut down on the numbers of hours spend studying, leaving more time for other things in your life.

    What are the best practices for learning and development? ›

    First up, how to give your employees a voice.
    • Let employees address their own learning needs. ...
    • Take a collaborative approach to learning. ...
    • Implement a mobile learning solution. ...
    • Invest in the right collaborative learning management system. ...
    • Incorporate the new blended learning solution.

    What are the examples and activities of cognitive development that you can apply in the classroom? ›

    Read books and tell jokes and riddles. Encourage stacking and building games or play with cardboard boxes. Do simple jigsaw puzzles and memory games. Play games that combine moving and singing – for example, 'If you're happy and you know it'.

    How can the cognitive development of learners be improved? ›

    Activities that enrich cognitive development in early childhood
    1. Sing with your child. ...
    2. Ask open-ended questions often. ...
    3. Play make-believe. ...
    4. Visit museums or science centers with your family. ...
    5. Read to your child daily. ...
    6. Let children solve problems independently. ...
    7. Teach children board games that require strategy.
    10 Sept 2021

    What is the most important factor for cognitive development? ›

    To promote your child's cognitive development, it is important that you actively engage in quality interactions on a daily basis. Examples include: Talking with your baby and naming commonly used objects. Letting your baby explore toys and move about.

    What are the characteristics of cognitive learning? ›

    Cognitive Characteristics
    • Inhibition – being able to stop a previously learnt or impulsive behaviour.
    • Working memory – being able to hold information in mind for a particular task.
    • Attention shifting – being able to move attention away from one situation to another.

    What is the types of cognitive learning? ›

    Types of cognitive learning include latent learning and the formation of insights.

    What is cognitive example? ›

    Doing homework is an example of cognition that relies on conscious thought, attention and memory.

    What are the examples of pedagogical considerations that a teacher must consider in the teaching process? ›

    Critical pedagogical practices may include listening to and including students' knowledge and perspectives in class, making connections between school and the broader community, and posing problems to students that encourage them to question assumed knowledge and understandings.

    How does pedagogical method influence teaching/learning process? ›

    Pedagogy and child development work hand in hand. It helps the student to think in different ways and move beyond the traditional methods of memorization and comprehension for learning. It invokes complex processes of learning among the students such as analyzing, creative thinking, and evaluation.

    What are some examples of pedagogical practices? ›

    • Child-centred, inquiry and play-based learning.
    • Responsive relationships.
    • Collaborative inquiry and critical reflection.
    • Observation and listening.
    • Documentation and narration.
    • Planning and implementation.
    • Program assessment and adaptation.
    • Pedagogical leaders share leadership.
    2 Jul 2020

    How do pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge affect to the teaching and learning process? ›

    Pedagogical content knowledge plays an important role in the teaching and learning process because it involves teacher"s competences in delivering the conceptual approach, relational understanding and adaptive reasoning of the subject matter (Kathirveloo et al., 2014) .

    How can teachers improve their content and pedagogical knowledge? ›

    Start discussions with other teachers about teaching. Take the time to find someone you can share ideas with and take the time to learn to trust each other. Exchange strategies for teaching difficult concepts or dealing with specific types of students. Get involved in a peer coaching project in your school or district.

    How can we improve the quality of learning based on the teaching and learning process? ›

    Here are some of the words of advice:
    1. Make your expectations clear.
    2. Make eye contact and address students by name.
    3. Supplement lectures with hands-on activities.
    4. Recognize students' accomplishments and respond appropriately to their concerns.
    5. Draw connections between the course material and its real-world applications.
    24 Mar 2021

    Why do teachers need to be guided by the different principles of teaching and learning? ›

    Because when a teacher combines the effective principles of teaching along with some strategies, the students will be able to learn more effectively. These strategies will provide students with more opportunities and will also improve their performance.

    Why is it important for all educators be able to identify quality research-based practices and resources? ›

    It's important for teachers to use evidence-based practices and programs mainly because they work. The whole point of using a research-based or an evidence-based practice is you know that there is research behind it that demonstrates that it will, in fact, be an effective intervention.

    What is the relationship between theory and practice? ›

    Practice is the observation of disparate concepts (or a phenomenon) that needs explanation. A theory is a proposed explanation of the relationship between two or more concepts, or an explanation for how/why a phenomenon occurs.

    Does learning theory influence teaching practices? ›

    An understanding of learning theories helps teachers connect to all different kinds of students. Teachers can focus on different learning styles to reach different students, creating teaching that focuses directly on student needs and aptitudes.

    What is the relationship between theoretical learning activities and practical learning activities? ›

    The theory-practice divide in teacher education is commonly viewed as there are two separate entities—theory and practice. However, in practice-based research approaches, theory is commonly integrated with existing practical knowledge with the aim to deepen teachers' knowledge about practice or to create new knowledge.

    What is the meaning of two way relationship between theories and practices? ›

    The relationship between practice and theory is reciprocal. The practice cannot position itself without the theoretical questions guiding the research. This is so, as without theory, data may be collected but without any sure way of explaining the different observed phenomena.

    Who quoted this statement in theory theory and practice are the same in practice they are not? ›

    Dr. Albert Einstein has a famous quote: “In theory, theory and practice are the same. In practice, they are not.”

    What is the relationship between theory and practice in social work? ›

    The relationship between theory and practice is conceived in the way that knowledge is internally connected to practice. Theory and practice influence each other. Changes in practice precipitate a need to re-conceptualize theory. Practice is influenced by contextual factors such as agency policy and clientele.

    What is the relationship between theories and philosophies of education? ›

    philosophies refer to complete bodies of thought that present a worldview of which education is a part, while educational theories focus on education itself and on schools (Ornstein & Levine, 2003).

    How does theory support pedagogical practices? ›

    A good theory would guide both research and practice by organizing existing pedagogical knowledge, allowing it to accumulate and advance. Teachers could use such a theory to guide the development and assessment of effective pedagogies.

    Why is practice important in learning? ›

    Practice greatly increases the likelihood that students will permanently remember new information (Anderson, 2008). Practice increases student facility or automaticity (learning to apply elements of knowledge automatically, without reflection).

    How can you effectively apply the learning theories in your teaching? ›

    Make Learning Meaningful and Relevant

    Ask meaningful questions that focus on the deeper meaning instead of the minor details. Give students opportunities to collaborate and learn from each other. Create meaningful activities that give students the opportunity to apply new knowledge.

    What other learning activities could the learners have been involved in to help them understand the concepts? ›

    15 active learning activities to energize your next college class
    • Think-pair-repair. In this twist on think-pair-share, pose an open-ended question to your class and ask students to come up with their best answer. ...
    • Improv games. ...
    • Brainwriting. ...
    • Jigsaw. ...
    • Concept mapping. ...
    • The one-minute paper. ...
    • Real-time reactions. ...
    • Chain notes.
    2 Apr 2020

    What is pedagogical content knowledge in teaching? ›

    Pedagogical content knowledge is a type of knowledge that is unique to teachers, and is based on the manner in which teachers relate their pedagogical knowledge (what they know about teaching) to their subject matter knowledge (what they know about what they teach).

    What is the relationship between project based learning and learning through play? ›

    Play-based learning is play with intentionality,” said Latimer. Project-based learning, by design, focuses on skill development (i.e. problem-solving and collaboration), deeper learning, inquiry, application, metacognition, student agency and creativity.

    How will studying management theory help you to understand management practice? ›

    Management theory also allows us to better communicate with people we work with which in turn allows us to work more efficiently. By understanding management theory, basic assumptions about management styles and goals can be assumed and can save time during daily interactions and meetings within an organization.

    What is the purpose of theory and practice? ›

    Theory assists researchers and teachers to critically reflect on education policy and classroom practice in attempting to ensure best education practice. Theory assists researchers with a clearer understanding of a research problem.

    What is the importance of related theories and concepts? ›

    Theories are vital: They guide and give meaning to what we see. When a researcher investigates and collects information through observation, the investigator needs a clear idea of what information is important to collect. Thus, valid theories are validated by research and are a sound basis for practical action.


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